In 2020, as we begin a new decade, Dr Sam Osmanagich and The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation is celebrating its 15 th year since multidisciplina
In 2020, as we begin a new decade, Dr Sam Osmanagich and The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation is celebrating its 15 th year since multidisciplinary investigations of the Bosnian Pyramids began. This year’s upcoming summer excavation season promises to be the most active yet, with active archaeological excavations taking place across the pyramid valley, both above and below ground on the Bosnian Pyramids of the Sun and Moon, Vratnica Tumulus, Ravne Tunnels, Ravne3 Tunnels and the newly discovered Ravne4 Tunnels.
In 2005, Bosnian born anthropologist Dr Sam Osmanagich announced to the world’s media his discovery, that a group of hills in the vicinity of Visoko, a small town in central Bosnia, were not hills at all but were in fact buried and forgotten Pyramids of both monumental size and extreme age. The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, the largest of the Bosnian Pyramids, is estimated to be at least 300m (900ft) tall. The Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, though smaller at 190m (600ft) tall, is still over 50m (150ft) taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza .
The response to his announcement was mixed, with equal amounts of excitement from those enthusiastic to esoteric ideas regarding the world’s ancient pyramids. But there was skepticism from many, including the local Bosnian population, and despite lack of any proper scientific investigation on their part, outright condemnation from academic circles intent on maintaining a crumbling paradigm.
Another shot of the Bosnian Pyramids (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
Direct Observations and Anecdotal Stories
When Dr Osmanagich first made his statement to the world press his pyramid hypothesis was based initially on several direct observations;
- That a number of hills in the area local to Visoko were four sided with triangular faces.
- The corners and slope angle of the triangular faces were regular.
Topographic map of the Bosnian Pyramid Valley showing the peaks of Sun (northwest), Moon (east) and Dragon pyramids (south) forming an equilateral triangle. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
- Like many other world pyramids and megalithic sites, the faces of these ‘hills’ were almost perfectly orientated towards the cardinal points, north, south, east, west.
- The spatial arrangement of three of the largest pyramidal ‘hills’ (Sun, Moon & Dragon Pyramids) formed a near perfect equilateral triangle between their peaks.
- The relative position and heights of the Sun and Moon Pyramids cause a shadow to be cast that marks the beginning of summer (Solstice) and the transition through to midsummer.
Photos show interaction between the shadow cast by the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun upon the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon. Image left shows shadow on Summer Solstice matching height of Moon Pyramid, which by midsummer moves to totally cover the pyramid (right). (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
With these direct observations made by Dr Osmanagich, were also the countless anecdotal stories told to him by the local population. The older generations would speak of how they used to play as children in underground tunnels all around Visoko. Tunnels that later had their entrances sealed by authorities during the time of Yugoslavia. Knowing the association between subterranean passages, hollow spaces (chambers) and almost all known ancient pyramids around the world, Dr Osmanagich recognized the significance of these locally told stories and would soon set to work on rediscovering and thus confirming the existence of these underground tunnels.
2006: The Excavation Begins…
Beginning in 2006, Dr Osmanagich would self-finance investigations of the Bosnian Pyramids in order to obtain empirical evidence to support his controversial pyramid hypothesis. Using satellites, geo-radar, seismic surveys and topographic analysis, a total of five principle sites were identified for initial investigation (later named Pyramids Sun, Moon, Dragon, Love and Temple of Mother Earth). Archaeological trenches were excavated across all these principle sites and were overseen by Dr Osmanagich and other experts in the field of archaeology, geology and geophysics.
Archaeological excavations taking place on the northern face of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun reveal blocks composed of an artificial geopolymer stronger than most modern-day concretes. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
As well as the surface excavations, core drilling was also conducted, with samples undergoing geochemical and material analysis by several specialized university departments internationally. Results suggested the material was an artificial conglomerate geopolymer and though it looked like natural stone, it had dissimilar chemical and mechanical properties to the geological material found locally. Strength tests measured it to be considerably stronger than both the locally found conglomerates and even modern-day concrete.
The evidence obtained supported Dr Osmanagich’s original hypothesis, that these hills under investigation were not just regular hills, but were in fact either, at the very least, modified to look like pyramids, or were completely built from the ground up, by a civilization of great antiquity, unknown to the mainstream version accepted history, using methods of construction unknown to modern science.
Prof. Dr Khavroshkin & Prof. Dr Tsyplakov from Schmidt Institute of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, conducted seismic surveys of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and concluded its seismic response matched that of the measurements they had made during a similar survey at the Great Pyramid of Giza. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
Discovery of Subterranean Tunnels Lost in Time
Not long after the initial phase of investigations began, Dr Osmanagich would find an opening to the underground tunnel network spoken of, which would later be named the ‘Ravne Tunnels’. An opening to these tunnels was located approximately 2.5km northwest of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. At the time of discovery, the entranceway was known locally but was only suspected as being a small cave of no significance. Upon closer inspection, Dr Osmanagich realized at the rear of the cave was an infilled passage.
Digital render of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun in relation to excavated and explored sections of the Ravne Tunnels. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
In order to explore the passages at the Ravne Tunnels entrance, Dr Osmanagich began excavating the small cave. What was revealed was a shock to everyone, including the local historians. It was not simply the entrances to the tunnels that had been blocked up in more recent times. But seemingly the entire tunnel network, which is now known to run for thousands of meters, had been backfilled with loose rubble material, a painstaking task of such magnitude, it almost seems implausible to imagine that it could have been undertaken without being noticed and recorded by the local populations if it had occurred within the recent historic ages.
After only a few tens of meters of excavating, Dr Osmanagich had revealed multiple infilled passages heading in different directions, the junctions of which were marked by simple yet beautiful drywall constructions. They clearly indicated that the passages cutting through the solid rock, and their subsequent blockage, were not the work of nature but it was done so by intelligent and purposeful hands.
As work continued and more of the tunnel network was emptied of rubble, enabling hundreds of meters worth of tunnels to be explored, further intriguing discoveries were made. The existence of chambers with multiple passages leading to them were identified, shaped stones with possible proto-runic language inscribed on them. Also, large megalithic blocks clearly out of context with the surrounding geological material, now known as the Megaceramic blocks K1, K2 & K3 and the Egg-shaped Monolith, were found.
Once again, all these discoveries continued to support the initial statements made by Dr Osmanagich in 2005 regarding his prehistoric Bosnian pyramid hypothesis.
Top left; Dr Sam Osmanagich inside the Ravne Tunnels pointing to infilled passage with drywall construction in front of it. Top right; One of over 50 drywalls identified within the Ravne Tunnels. Bottom left; Excavation and subsequent removal of rubble blocking the Ravne Tunnels. Bottom right; Megaceramic block K2, estimated to weigh 8 tons. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
One Big Hoax?
Of course, none of these objective proofs brought to light by Dr Osmanagich were enough to convince the gatekeepers of the pre-existing historic paradigm. Authoritative critics of the project would make unfounded and somewhat preposterous accusations that Dr Osmanagich was shaping the hills to look like pyramids and that he was digging the tunnels himself ( we presume at night-time in total darkness ).
The European Association of Archaeologists called the Bosnian Pyramid Project a “hoax on an unsuspecting public,” whilst the publication ‘British Archaeology’ called the Bosnian Pyramids a “Great Scheme.” Disgraced Egyptian Minister of Antiquities, Dr Zahi Hawass, also had to have his say, undoubtedly from fear of losing tourist revenue, saying that Dr Osmanagich was suffering from “hallucinations” ( all be it persistent ones? ).
Slightly less preposterous was the unfounded conjecture that the tunnels were the product of a Yugoslavian army training exercise. Non-experts in this field also illogically concluded that the tunnels were the remains of a medieval gold mine, despite the fact there is no gold, or ever was, any mineral of economic importance within the rock unit the Ravne Tunnels cuts through.
Numerous websites and Wikipedia entries calling the Bosnian Pyramids a “pseudo-archaeological notion” were set up to misinform the curious public, sometimes through omission, other times through deceit, spin and outright lies. It seemed that while there were plenty of people ready to attack Dr Osmanagich on a personal level, no one was arguing directly against Dr Osmanagich’s raised proofs in an objective, scientific manor on a fair playing field.
Most Open and Transparent Site in the World
Besides the controversies generated by the Bosnian Pyramid Project, there is of course one other thing that differentiates the research taking place in the Bosnian Pyramid Valley to that of any other archaeological project. It is the most open and transparent archaeological site in the world. Unlike in Egypt for example, where it is almost impossible for anyone outside the clique of Egyptology to undertake independent or even cooperative research freely, the Bosnian Pyramid Valley is open to everyone.
Physicist Slobodan Mizdrak (left) and electrotechnical engineer Goran Marjanovic (center) are two of several independent researchers who came to measure the electromagnetic and ultrasonic emissions emanating from the structures within the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
For example, since 2010, independent researchers have been coming to Visoko to investigate the electromagnetic and archaeoacoustic properties of the Bosnian Pyramids. Experts in their field from UK, Finland, Italy, Croatia and Serbia, each using different equipment and methodology, were all able to repeatedly detect and measure emissions being generated by the Bosnian Pyramids. Their investigations revealed that the Pyramid of the Sun produced both a focused and stable beam of resonating electromagnetic energy emanating from its peak, as well as accompanying diffusive sound at ultrasonic frequencies.
Poly-interference photography commonly used to photograph biological energy fields was also utilized across the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. The PIP camera was able to show how the Bosnian Pyramids manipulate the Earths naturally occurring EM-field. Imagery taken of nearby hills using the same technique showed a distinctly different EM-field pattern, clearly differentiating the energetic properties of the Bosnian Pyramids from that of the natural local landforms.
Independent researcher Harry Oldfield utilized his PIP camera at the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. Photo left is a natural hill with horizontal energy-fields above it. Photo right is taken of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. The Earths naturally occurring energy-fields have been turned almost 90 degrees. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
2018 and 2019: New Openings Lead to More Tunnels and 1000s of Artifacts
A more recent landmark discovery, made largely in part by the assistance of volunteers during the 2018 summer camp, was significant enough that for the first time since archaeological work began, the local municipal museum and its staff are now working in cooperation with the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation. This partnership is a small but well-needed step in the development and acceptance of the research taking place within the Bosnian Pyramid Valley.
Groups of international volunteers during the summer 2018 excavation season working at the site now named ‘Ravne3’. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
Surface excavations undertaken several hundred meters away from the known entranceway to the explored sections of the Ravne Tunnels revealed a completely new opening into the subterranean network. Like the tunnels before them, the entranceway had been blocked up with loose rubble and it was down to the volunteers to clear away this material. After two weeks of digging underground through the blocked passages, a large section of tunnels was revealed completely free of any loose blocking material.
Chambers and connecting passages were discovered and by the following spring of 2019 it was found that the raised floor within the open section was rich in archaeological material. Over the course of the 2019 summer season, over 3000 individual finds were recovered from the Ravne3 Tunnels. Pottery fragments, tiles, jewelry, coins, tools and lithic artifacts were excavated.
Left; A medieval pot partially reconstructed from fragments excavated from within the Ravne3 Tunnels. Right; A bronze pendant connector with Romanized Celtic motif recovered from the Ravne3 Tunnels. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
Typological analysis conducted by archaeologists at the municipal museum indicated Neolithic, Roman and medieval periods were represented by these finds. By the end of the summer, as it seemed all the artifacts may had been recovered from within Ravne3. However, one last discovery of the season was made… two drywalls. By their form, material and context, the drywalls matched those discovered previously By Dr Osmanagich within the original Ravne Tunnels, linking the creation of the two tunnel sections together and inferring each being part of one large subterranean network.
At Least 6000 Years Old!
The work completed by the end of the 2019 summer season allowed for a minimum age to be given to the Ravne3 Tunnels, using both relative and absolute dating methods. Stratigraphically, the drywalls were found below the cultural layers containing artifacts and radiometric dating of geological material dated the creation of the Ravne3 Tunnels to being at least 6000 years old, with the expectation they are older. In summary, the work conducted at Ravne3 categorically disproved any notion that the Yugoslavian army, medieval miners or Dr Sam himself, were responsible for the creation of the Ravne Tunnels Network.
Left; A passage connecting two chambers within the Ravne3 Tunnels. Right; One of two drywalls found within the Ravne3 Tunnels. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
For more information on the Ravne3 2018/19 excavations please see the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundations Geoarchaeological Summery Report; https://bit.ly/2QAMIvC.
Stumbling Upon the Ravne4 Tunnels and Outlook for 2020
Most recently and by complete chance, in the winter of 2019, while landscaping and maintenance work was being conducted within the grounds of the Ravne Park Complex, workers of the foundation uncovered yet another opening into the Ravne Tunnels Network. This opening led to more tunnels free from blocking material and is the closest tunnel section to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun yet located.
Top left; Small opening being enlarged to gain entry into Ravne4. Top right; The first chamber leads to several passages with one being free from blocking material. Bottom left; A drywall is identified, marking an infilled passage behind it. Bottom right; An open passage leads to a small chamber. (Richard Hoyle / The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation )
The discovery of the Ravne4 Tunnels has saved several years’ worth of excavations towards the Sun Pyramid and as such is now the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundations excavation priority for 2020. Besides the initial prospecting, work has barely begun at this newly identified location. Numerous branching passages, chambers and drywalls have so far been observed inside the Ravne4 Tunnels, with several of these passages heading south, in the direction towards the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, the biggest and oldest pyramid in the world.
Top image: Shot of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and the surrounding area including Visoko city Source: Aleksandar Todorovic / Adobe stock
Richard Hoyle (UK) is the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation field geologist. For more information about the Bosnian Pyramid Volunteering program and how to apply please visit the official Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation webpage; https://bit.ly/2tgR0Py